1. If understanding the meaning of MA is vital, which statement is CORRECT?
select one option a) If a patient takes more than 80% of their prescribed medications, they are considered adherent. b) If a patient takes more than 80% of their prescribed medications, they are considered nonadherent. c) If a patient takes less than 50% of their prescribed medications, they are considered adherent. d) If a patient takes less than 80% of their prescribed medications, they are considered adherent.
2. According to the World Health Organization, approximately what percent of patients fail to take their prescriptions as prescribed by their doctors?
select one option a) 10% b) 25% c) 50% d) 80%
3. Passive act of the patient to follow the provider’s orders is called? Choose the CORRECT term
select one option a) Concordance b) Medication avoidance c) Compliance d) Medication adherence
4. Which five groups of determinants of non-adherence did the WHO-report on adherence distinguish?
select one option a) socio-economic factors, patient-related factors, health system related factors, condition-related factors, treatment-related factors b) bio-social characteristics, social-support related factors, health system related factors, condition-related factors, education-related factors c) socio-economic factors, social-support related factors, health care professional-related factors, condition-related factors, treatment-related factors d) socio-economic factors, patient-related factors, health care professional-related factors, illness-perception factors, treatment-related factors
5. What are two major communication strategies to address memory barriers for adherence?
select one option a) Motivational interviewing and recall-promoting techniques b) Involving the patient in the problem-solving/decision-making process and motivational interviewing c) Recall-promoting techniques and giving information and advice about medical condition and the necessity of therapeutic regimen d) Recall-promoting techniques and Involving the patient in the problem-solving/decision-making process
6. Self-efficacy is considered an important determinant for adherence. What does self-efficacy mean in the context of adherence?
select one option a) Specific behaviors that patients initiate and perform on their own behalf, with the intention of improving health, by better adherence. b) Patients’ belief in their own capacity to follow a prescribed medical regimen in challenging situations. c) The taking of responsibility for one's own medication-intake behaviour . d) All of the above.
7. Which of the following methods are both considered objective measures of medication adherence?
select one option a) prescription records & patient interview b) electronic measures & prescription refill data c) patient interview & physician judgement d) blood sample analysis & validated self-report questionnaire
9. Identify the CORRECT answer on medication adherence enhancing interventions (MAEIs):
select one option a) Only a very few medication adherence enhancing interventions have been developed in the last decades but these are all effective. b) Several MAEIs have been developed in the last decades and some of these MAEIs can improve non-adherence and health outcomes effectively. c) Several MAEIs have been developed in the last decades and the majority of these MAEIs improve non-adherence effectively but does not have an effect on health outcomes. d) Only a very few medication adherence enhancing interventions have been developed in the last decades and these are often too simple and ineffective.
10. Which of the following steps is NOT considered to be part of the implementation process of medication adherence enhancing interventions (MAEIs)?
select one option a) Health technology assessment of the intervention b) Reimbursement of the intervention c) Development of the intervention d) Implementation of the intervention
11. Which of the following answers can be considered as a barrier of the implementation of medication adherence enhancing interventions (MAEIs)?
select one option a) Existing evidence on the economic aspects of medication adherence enhancing interventions is of poor quality. b) Low awareness of decision makers on medication non-adherence. c) Different types of medication adherence enhancing interventions require different health technology assessment methodologies. d) All above answers are correct.
12. Which of the following statements demonstrates empathy
select one option a) I know how difficult this is for you b) I do understand how you are feeling c) This sounds really difficult for you d) I am so sorry you are having to go through this
13. What does the acronym ICE stand for
select one option a) Indicators Concerns Expectation b) Impressions Concerns Empathy c) Ideas Concerns Expectation d) Ideas Compliance Expectations
14. “You know how to take your medication don’t you “? This is an example of:
select one option a) A closed leading question b) An open exploratory question c) A clarifying question d) A broad open question
15. Regarding adherence/non-adherence with inhaled treatment and related factors from patient’s perspective, indicate the answer that you consider INCORRECT:
select one option a) Adherence is considered as a proper, active, voluntary and flexible conduct with justified exceptions. b) Adherence and non-adherence are different concepts: non-adherence is not considered the opposite of adherence. c) The central explanatory category of non-adherence would be the negative or confused assessment of the effect of inhaled treatment (lack of efficacy, presence of adverse effects, erroneous beliefs). d) Non-adherence is recognized as its own, identifying negative personal attitudes as a central category. e) Patients adhere to treatment if they maintain an attitude of active coping with the disease.
16. Of the following statements, one is NOT CORRECT. Select one:
select one option a) The plan of care is developed after assessing possible interactions and then learning about the patient's preferences b) The care plan should include a follow-up schedule, treatment, presentations and number of pills per day, possible preventive activities and self-care advice c) The possible unintended consequences of a new treatment should be anticipated. d) The coordination of appointments, visits and other actions with different professionals or the performance of complementary tests is not the exclusive responsibility of the family doctor.
17. One of the following statements is FALSE when caring for patients with several chronic pathologies, which one? Select one:
select one option a) Both new problems that arise and pre-existing problems that remain need to be assessed and addressed. b) It is necessary to check the patient's needs and negotiate an agreement on future visits, establishing precautionary measures as a safety net (when and why a visit could be brought forward, what to do in the event of an undesired effect, etc.). c) The most comprehensive treatment possible should be established, based on evidence and all clinical practice guidelines. d) Health promotion must be undertaken.
18. Of the following practical elements of the interview, mark the WRONG statement: Select one:
select one option a) Sentences by repetition, as opposed to direct questions, can facilitate the recomposition of the patient's emotional defences, preventing the emergence of negative feelings. b) Clarification is a verbal or non-verbal intervention that forces the patient to explain the meaning of a term or idea. c) Facilitations and polite orders are mainly verbal messages that encourage the patient to continue with his or her story. d) The suggested addition technique consists of suggesting to the patient something that we think he/she wants to say, but does not dare or cannot find the words to say.
19. The “teach-back” method is a method for a physician to see if their patient understands the treatment plan. Which of the following describes the “teach-back” method?
select one option a) The patient teaches the medical staff about next steps. b) Gaps in the patient's understanding are left to the patient to figure out. c) Written instructions for the patient are avoided. d) The patient has no say in the treatment plan and listens to the medical staff.
20. With respect to the Ariadne Principles (Select the CORRECT):
select one option a) They help address multimorbidity and improve adherence. b) They consider the importance of setting realistic treatment goals c) They take into account individual patient preferences. d) They highlight the possibility of drug-drug, disease-disease and drug-disease interactions. e) All above is correct.